'''Theodor Herzl''' ( ''Te'odor Hertsel'', ; May 2, 1860 – July 3, 1904), born '''Benjamin Ze'ev Herzl''' ( ''Binyamin Ze'ev Hertsel''), also known in Hebrew as , ''Chozeh HaMedinah'' (lit. "Visionary of the State") was an Austro-Hungarian
journalist, playwright, political activist, and writer who was one of the fathers of modern political Zionism
. Herzl formed the World Zionist Organization
and promoted Jewish migration to Palestine (region)|Palestine
in an effort to form a Jewish state. Though he died long before its establishment, he is generally considered a father of the Israel|State of Israel
, formed in 1948.
While Herzl is often mistakenly identified as the first major Zionism|Zionist
activist, scholars such as Yehuda Bibas
, Zvi Hirsch Kalischer
and Judah Alkalai
were promoting Zionist ideas before him.